Stockholders, creditors, and private investors often need assurance that the
financial statements accurately represent the true financial position of a company. Your stockholders, creditors, or private investors have different levels of risk tolerance, so we provide
three levels of assurance to meet your needs.
Stockholders, creditors, and private investors often need assurance that the financial statements accurately represent the true financial position of a company.
Your stockholders, creditors, or private investors have different levels of risk tolerance, so we provide three levels of assurance to meet your needs.
Audit - Highest Level of Assurance
An audit provides the highest level of assurance. An audit is a methodical review and objective examination of the financial statements, including the verification of specific information as determined by the auditor or as established by general practice.
Our work includes a review of internal controls, testing of selected transactions, and communication with third parties. Based on our findings, we issue a report on whether the financial statements are fairly stated and free of material misstatements.
An Audit allows you to...
Here's what you get...
You get the highest level of assurance because we go outside your company to obtain more information. Typically, we'll have written communication with:
We also perform physical inspections by observing your inventory counting methods and performing test counts. We document and test each operating cycle, including sales and cash receipts, expenses and cash disbursements, and payroll. Our firm continuously researches new and proposed accounting and auditing pronouncements from the accounting industry's standard setting boards to ensure our clients' financial reporting practices and our auditing procedures are in compliance with the most recent pronouncements.
Audits Not Just for Public Entities
All public companies are required to have an annual audit, but some nonpublic entities must undergo an annual audit as well. These include local governments, not-for-profit agencies and other organizations receiving government grants.
Moreover, some financial institutions require audits of nonpublic companies based on the financing amount and/or the bank's assessment of the company's risk. Also, companies with absentee ownership (such as those owned by investment firms, or individuals who no longer run the business) may require audits in order to protect their investment.
Review - Limited Assurance
Less extensive than an audit, but more involved than a compilation, a review engagement consists primarily of analytical procedures we apply to the financial statements, and various inquiries we make of your company's management team. If the financial statements or supporting information appear inconsistent or otherwise questionable, we may need to perform additional procedures.
A review doesn't require us to review your company's internal controls or verify data with third parties or physically inspect assets. Rather, a review report expresses limited assurance in the form of the statement: "We are not aware of any material modifications" for the financial statements to be in conformity with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). Reviewed financial statements must include all required note disclosures.
Compilation - Lowest Level of Assurance
In compiling financial statements for a client, we present information that is the "representation of management" and express no opinion or assurance on the statements. Compilations don't require inquiries of management or analytical procedures. Instead, we rely on our knowledge of accounting principles and a general understanding of your business.
Banks often require compilations from an independent CPA as part of their lending covenants.
Which Report Should You Use?
Each type of financial statement report may suit specific circumstances, depending on requirements from your bank or other parties, as well as budgetary needs.